lwipopts.h is a user file that you can use to fully configure lwIP and all of its modules. You do not need to define every option that lwIP provides; if you do not define an option, a default value will be used. Therefore, your lwipopts.h provides a way to override much of the behavior of lwIP.
Module support (Code size)
Enabling and disabling modules. You can tune your code size by only compiling the features you really need. The following is a list of what gets compiled in "out of the box" with lwIP.
- Default inclusions:
- Default exclusions:
If you would like to change this, then you just need to set the options listed below. For example, if you would like to disable UDP and enable DHCP, the following lwipopts.h file would do it:
// Disable UDP #define LWIP_UDP 0 // Enable DHCP #define LWIP_DHCP 1
Memory management (RAM usage)
In an embedded environment, memory pools make for fast and efficient memory allocation. lwIP provides a flexible way to manage memory pool sizes and organization.
lwIP reserves a fixed-size static chunk of memory in the data segment, which is subdivided into the various pools that lwip uses for the various data structures. For example, there is a pool just for
struct tcp_pcb's, and another pool just for
struct udp_pcb's. Each pool can be configured to hold a fixed number of data structures; this number can be changed in the lwipopts.h file by changing the various
MEMP_NUM_* values. For example,
MEMP_NUM_UDP_PCB control the maximum number of
udb_pcb structures that can be active in the system at any given time.
It is also possible to create custom memory pools in addition to the standard ones provided by lwIP.
lwIP uses a custom function
mem_malloc for all dynamic allocation; therefore, it is easy to change how lwIP uses its RAM. There are three possibilities provided out-of-the-box:
- (default) lwIP's custom heap-based
mem_malloc. By default, lwIP uses a statically-allocated chunk of memory like a heap for all memory operations. Use
MEM_SIZEto change the size of the lwIP heap.
- C standard library
free. If you wish to have lwIP use the standard library functions provided by your compiler/architecture, then define the option
- Memory pools. lwIP can also emulate dynamic allocation using custom memory pools (see that chapter for more information). This involves the options
MEMP_USE_CUSTOM_POOLSand a new custom file
Understanding/changing memory usage
lwIP uses memory for:
- code (depending on your system, may use ROM instead of RAM)
- statically allocated variables (some initialized, some not initialized)
- task stack
- dynamically allocated memory
- memp pools
Unless you use a C library heap implementation (by defining MEM_LIBC_MALLOC to 1), dynamically allocated memory must be statically allocated somewhere. This means you reserve a specific amount of memory for the heap or the memp pools from which the code dynamically allocates memory at runtime.
The size of this heap and memp pools can be adjusted to save RAM:
- There are 3 types of pbufs: REF/ROM, RAM and POOL. PBUF_POOL_SIZE * PBUF_POOL_BUFSIZE only refers to type POOL.
- RAM pbufs are allocated in the memory defined by MEM_SIZE (this memory is not used much aside from RAM pbufs) - this is the *heap* and it is allocated as mem_memory.
- REF/ROM pbufs as well as pcbs and some other stuff is allocated from dedicated pools per structure type. The amount of structures is defined by the various MEMP_NUM_ defines. Together, this memory is allocated as memp_memory and it *includes* the pbuf POOL.
However, if you define MEMP_MEM_MALLOC to 1 in your lwipopts.h, *every* piece of dynamically allocated memory will come from the heap (the size of which is defined by MEM_SIZE). If you then even define MEM_LIBC_MALLOC to 1, too, lwIP doesn't need extra memory for dynamically allocated memory but only uses the C library heap instead. However, you then have to make sure that this heap is big enough to run your application.
To tweak the various MEMP_NUM_ defines, define LWIP_STATS=1 and LWIP_STATS_DISPLAY=1 and call stats_display() to see how many entries of each pool are used (or have a look at the global variable lwip_stats instead).
Fine-tuning even more
To see the options that you can set, open
lwip/src/include/lwip/opt.h. This file is fully commented and explains how many of the options are used.